Therapeutic challenges in quadruple negative breast cancer
Keywords:quadruple negative breast cancer, triple negative breast cancer, androgen receptor expression, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, therapeutic targets
Recently, breast cancer (BC) continuously ranks first in the incidence rate of malignant neoplasms in women worldwide. Quadruple negative (QNBC) is a recently identified subtype of triple negative BC (TNBC) presenting with negative androgen receptor expression. QNBC characterization and treatment is fraught with many challenges. There is cumulative evidence suggesting that QNBC is highly proliferative and immunogenic, rendering it an ideal candidate for cytotoxic chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Some subtypes and related pathway proteins are preferentially expressed in QNBC and may act as effective therapeutic targets such as acyl-CoA synthetase 4, S-phase kinase associated protein 2, immune checkpoint inhibitors and epidermal growth factor receptor. Several recent investigations comparing the therapeutic approach to QNBC and TNBC are briefly reviewed. Further more intensive and problem-oriented research in this topic of rising socio-medical importance is needed.
Copyright (c) 2022 Galina Yaneva
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