In vitro organogenesis from transformed root cultures of Plantago lanceolata and phytochemical analysis by HPLC and GC-MS


  • Samaneh Rahamouz-Haghighi Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
  • Ali Sharafi Zanjan Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran; Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
  • Khadijeh Bagheri Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.


Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Phytochemical analysis, Plantago lanceolata, Transformed plants, Transgenic roots


Plantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain) is a well-known medicinal plant that has been used for traditional purposes. In vitro shoot, organogenesis, and plant regeneration of P. lanceolata were established from transgenic root explants, and then the main medicinal compounds were detected by HPLC and GC-MS. The highest frequency of transformation, shoot organogenesis (100%) and the number of shoots per explant (177) was achieved using the Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 in ½ salt B5 medium without the addition of plant growth regulators (PGRs) for 14-20 days after infection by A. rhizogenes. Root induction occurred from the regenerated shoots sub-cultured on the ½ MS without the addition of any PGRs after 7-14 days. The results of HPLC analysis showed that apigenin and gallic acid content in transgenic plants are more than transgenic roots. The content of catalpol did not show a significant difference in both transgenic samples. The methanolic extracts of transformed roots showed remarkable compounds, including Cycloheptasiloxane, tetradecamethyl-(1.43-fold increase); Palmitic acid methyl ester-(4.15-fold increase); 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester-(1.72-fold increase); Methyl isostearate--(4.26-fold increase) in comparison to the methanolic extract of P.lanceolata root. P. lanceolata is a medicinal plant that showed worthy potential for in vitro culture. As the first report, that established a reliable protocol to optimize the produce hairy roots and HR-plants of P. lanceolata. hairy roots offer suitable prospects for the production of valuable compounds due to the overproduction of shoot and root.





Biochemistry and Biotechnology