Study on biological and environmental factors for azoospermia


  • Evgeniya Neshova Ivanova Section Editor, Genetics Journal of BioScience and Biotechnology University of Plovdiv "Paisii Hilendarski", Bulgaria
  • Spas Dimitrov Dzhoglov PhD Student University of Plovdiv "Paisii Hilendarski" Department of Developmental Biology Plovdiv, Bulgaria


The absence of sperm in the seminal fluid is known as azoospermia. This medical condition is in a direct association with male’s infertility. A complete medical history, physical examination, tests of selected hormones and tests for male fertility (including sperm analysis) are used for the diagnosis of azoospermia.

The number of 1314 men, with fertility problems, in age between 20 and 67 years, were included in this investigation. The data obtained in the study showed that azoospermia occurred in 5.25% of the studied group. The Klinefelter syndrome was cytogenetically diagnosed in 2.9% of the studied male individuals. There was found that 44.3% of males with azoospermra have been smokers, 7.1% of them – addicted to drugs, 17.1% have took different medicaments, 4.35% – have had radiation therapy, 4.35% have had a diagnosis “varicocele”. The volume of the ejaculate was less than 2 ml in 37.68% of the studied men and more than 7 ml in 2.89% of them.





Ecology and Ecotoxicology